Top image containing colorful hands


  • Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Rösblad B, Beckung E, Arner M, Öhrvall AM, Rosenbaum P. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability. Dev. Med Child Neur 2006. 48:549-554.
  • Arner M, Eliasson AC, Nicklasson S, Sommerstein K, Hägglund G. Hand function in cerebral palsy. First report on 367 children in a population-based longitudinal health care programme. Journal of Hand Surgery, 2008: 33A; 1337-1347.
  • Öhrvall AM, Eliasson AC. Parents and therapists perceptions about the content and construct of Manual Ability Classification System, MACS. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational therapy 2010 Sep;17(3):209-16.
  • Imms C, Carlin J, Eliasson AC. Stability of parent reported manual ability and gross motor function classification of cerebral palsy. Dev. Med Child Neur, 2010 Feb;52(2):153-9.
  • Öhrvall AM, Eliasson AC, Löwing K, Ödman P, Krumlinde-Sundholm L. Development of functional skills in children with cerebral palsy related to their manual ability and gross motor function classification Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 2010;52(11):1048-55.
  • Öhrvall AM, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Eliasson AC. Exploration of the relationship between Manual Ability Classification System and hand-function measures of capacity and performance. Disability and Rehabilitation 2013 Jun;35(11):913-8.
  • Öhrvall AM, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Eliasson AC. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS); evidence of stability over time 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/dmcn.12348.

Instructional video

Preview of the cover for the MACS Instructional video

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Download issues resolved!
MACS had some issues with downloading leaflets and identification charts that now have been resolved. The problems originated from the hosting company and a bad configuration.
Mini-MACS and MACS level identification chart in Dutch can now be downloaded
A new MACS level identification chart and Mini-MACS in Dutch is now available for download. Follow the link to the left.